Moreover, the expenses for representatives of the ethnic group in these regions turned out to be less than planned a year earlier.
In the draft federal budget for 2023, subsidies to support the indigenous peoples of the North (SIPN) are planned for a modest 450 million rubles (instead of the planned 500 million rubles). The money is allocated under the state program "Implementation of the state national policy."
Thus, Yakutia, where more than 30,000 indigenous people live, will receive 352 million rubles (it was expected that 390.8 million rubles). Chukotka (and more than 15,000 indigenous peoples live in the Autonomous Okrug) the federal budget will add 93 million rubles (instead of 102 million rubles). The federal center allocates a ridiculous amount to support the indigenous peoples of the Nenets Okrug - 4.5 million rubles (instead of 6.9 million rubles). Indigenous Nenets in this point of the Far North are more than 7 thousand people.
First Vice-President of the Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East, Senator from the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug Alexander Novyukhov notes that such subsidies from Moscow are traditionally distributed among the subjects that need it most. "And where often in the regional budgets is the minimum component of the components for these programs. Simply put, the money is received by regions with relatively small incomes. This is the traditional principle of distributing subsidies, unfortunately," the senator specified.
As an example, he cited the rich Tyumen matryoshka, where Yugra with a budget of more than 283 billion rubles and Yamal with a budget revenue of more than 243 billion rubles can cope without federal millions. In addition, the oil and gas industry has to take the rap there as well.
"For example, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, KhMAO, Krasnoyarsk Territory - they have self-sufficient budgets and quite tangible amounts of distribution for programs and subprograms in relation to the indigenous peoples of the north. Plus, a rather high status of the oil and gas sector. For example, in KhMAO, within the framework of signed agreements with representatives The fuel and energy complex, and about 1200 of them are signed annually, last year the amount of payments from oil and gas companies in favor of the indigenous peoples of the North amounted to about 400 million rubles.But funding directly from the state was directed to literally several events, educational ones in the first place, "explained Alexander Novyukhov .
Regional deputies and social activists do not agree with this position and believe that small peoples need more tangible financial support and state protection.
Yuri Lapsui , a lawyer and defender of the interests of the indigenous peoples of the YaNAO , admitted that he had not yet seen the draft federal budget (the Internet is a great luxury for northerners), but he hopes that the deputies of the State Duma will change their minds when the budget statement is finally approved.
“Even if oil and gas companies maintain their funding volumes and fulfill all their social obligations in 2023, there will still be difficulties. I’m afraid that even Yamal will have to curtail or sequester part of the programs. representatives of the indigenous peoples of the North with housing. Housing is the most important, hot and expensive issue today," says Yuriy Lapsui.
He explains that the area of pastures is decreasing every year, because the land is taken by oil and gas companies. Families have to leave the tundra, their plagues, and move closer to civilization. Therefore, the "oil and gas generals" are forced to pay off the natives with money.
“The traditional economy and territories are shrinking, and in return, the same Gazprom or another giant promises to build housing. And this help is theoretical, and it seems to be fixed on paper, but it’s still not clear how fast a nomad who could nomadize three years ago, but today he has no reindeer left, he will get new housing, and will not sit in the plague. And people, including beneficiaries, stand in line for an apartment for 10 years. While there were good times for Gazprom, now it will get worse and worse, "says the human rights activist Yamal natives.
Historian, writer, lawyer and defender of the Khanty Andrey Longov also considers it wrong to "offend" almost 20 regions of Russia where small peoples live.
"Everyone has a lot of problems. For example, the Khanty language is dying. Where firewood and chips do not fly, there will be no language either. And artificially maintaining it in a greenhouse is some kind of irony. Imitation of violent activity. We must support our native language, and this means supporting small villages, separate camps, ancestral lands. And this is not Khanty-Mansiysk or Salekhard, where everyone dances, sings in support of the indigenous peoples of the North and does not know what to do with money. Because they are very rich, snickering," he shared his opinion Longotov.
Yelena Kukushkina , a deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Yamal -Nenets Autonomous Okrug , partly agrees with Senator Novyukhov regarding the division of money between poor and rich subjects, but considers "abnormal cuts in budgets for the indigenous population."
"Yes, our region positions itself as self-sufficient, but apparently there was no one to defend our interests at the federal level. These are the parliamentarians. They agreed that there is and did not argue or insist. But we have problems from this there will be no less. In Yamal alone, almost 17 thousand people lead a nomadic lifestyle. And how many are semi-nomadic ... Help and help them. How to deal with only one alarming trend: with the intra-regional unification of territories, which is now happening in Yamal, the indigenous rural population is losing part of the federal benefits. And in general, the tendency to reduce social benefits for all low-income strata of the population is increasing. The indigenous peoples of the North, unfortunately, are no exception," Elena Kukushkina summed up.
In the draft federal budget for 2024, assistance to representatives of the ethnic group is planned at the same level - 450 million rubles. This money will be divided between Yakutia and Chukotka. All other regions are not provided with a single ruble.
Alexander Novyukhov is confident that only the state will cut costs, and businesses will not be able to refuse their obligations to the regions.
"There are obligations, they are long-term. And in no way can an oil or gas company independently or unilaterally change these payments. The financing process has been built on this scheme for 15 years. Legislative regulation there is quite serious," Senator Novyukhov assured.