Posted 10 сентября 2021,, 11:36
Published 10 сентября 2021,, 11:36
Modified 24 декабря 2022,, 22:38
Updated 24 декабря 2022,, 22:38
Tomorrow, September 11, on the tragic 20th anniversary of the terrorist attacks of Al-Qaeda (an organization banned in the Russian Federation), when 2,997 people died in the United States and 6,300 were wounded, the inauguration of the new government of Afghanistan will take place. Federation Council Chairwoman Valentina Matvienko suggested that the Russian representation "will be at the level of ambassadors, diplomatic corps, nothing more". Thus, in one way or another, the legitimacy of the Taliban, which is officially banned as a terrorist organization in Russia, is recognized?
The modern tragedy of Afghanistan has once again shown and proved that any attempts to invade deeply archaic communities from outside have negative consequences for everyone - including civilizers.
It's about common human problems. And therefore it is regrettable for the open gloating glee of Russian propaganda television and part of our political spectrum, which joyfully broadcast: “The United States is humiliated. America has lost the war "," the United States suffered a real military defeat in Afghanistan".
First, one can argue whether the sabotage, terrorist attacks of the Taliban against the American military units can be considered a war. An instant civil war was lost by the legitimate government of Afghanistan.
Secondly, if the Taliban had not overthrown the legitimate Afghan government, then there would have been no "defeat of America" and no reason for gloating? Does this mean that the inhabitants of TV and their other like-minded people rejoice at the victory of the Taliban, which has been declared a terrorist organization in the Russian Federation?
And therefore it is quite reasonable to talk about something completely different, about the global issue of international life - about the civilizing defeat in general, in this case - America.
The bulk (half) of the population of Afghanistan is Pashtuns. Then, in terms of numbers, Tajiks, Hazaras (Turkic-Mongolian-Iranian conglomerate), Uzbeks...
Since feudal times, the language of the upper estates, and then - the state language, the language of the educated estates was Dari, which was spoken by Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks. Since 1933, the authorities have introduced a second state language - Pashto.
The Pashtuns are a nationality mainly living in the Hindu Kush mountains, in the so-called Strip of Independence between Afghanistan and British India, later - Pakistan. It was also called the Tribal Territory. The Pashtuns have never really obeyed the British, Afghan or Pakistani authorities. They lived and live according to their patriarchal, tribal laws, according to the Pashtun-walai code, which is a symbiosis with the Islamic Sharia and even competes with it.
In Afghanistan, the Pashtuns are the least educated, virtually illiterate part of the population. The most accessible (and prestigious) career for them was a military career, military service, and a religious one - to enter a madrasah and become a "Taliban", that is, a "student", "student". And then - a mullah.
Until 1978, the country lived more or less peacefully under the rule of the shahs.
And here, for the information of those gloating about the "defeat of America", it should be recalled that the chaos in the country began with the overthrow of the Shah's regime, with the so-called April Revolution, inspired and supported by the USSR. Moreover, in December 1979, the USSR brought in troops. A "socialist republic" was proclaimed in Afghanistan. The war began. Its leaders were mujahideen, the most prominent figures were the "Panjshir Lion" Tajik Ahmad Shah Massoud (his son Ahmad Masud now leads the resistance to the Taliban regime in the Panjshir province) and Uzbek General Rashid Dostum.
The Taliban also fought, but they were out of sight. Moreover, in the Soviet press every now and then there were reports that were fully understandable only to those in the know - about the negotiations of the Soviet military-political leadership in Afghanistan with ... the leaders of the Pashtun tribes. That is, our people persuaded the Pashtuns to an alliance against the Mujahideen. (So we have had connections with them since that time.)
Soviet troops were in Afghanistan for 10 years. Over the years, 15 052 of our soldiers and officers died there, 53 753 were wounded, 417 went missing.
In early 1992, the pro-Soviet government of the Afghan Democratic Republic fell.
But the Islamic State of Afghanistan, recognized by almost all countries of the world, existed for only 4 years. It literally disintegrated into parts already in the internecine war of the former field commanders-mujahideen - Masud, Dostum, Hekmatyar.
At this time, the Taliban, created in 1994, appeared on the scene of the Afghan civil war. The Pashtun Taliban entered Kabul in 1996 and established an Islamic Emirate in the country. Public executions were introduced, men were obliged to wear beards, women to wear a burqa. Girls were allowed to learn to read and write only in mosques and only up to 10 years of age. Women were forbidden to work outside the walls of the house, to go out on the streets unaccompanied by a man, cinemas were closed, televisions, VCRs were banned, and so on.
In 2001, the United States, as part of the counter-terrorist operation against al-Qaeda (an organization banned in the Russian Federation, the Taliban hid its leader Osama bin Laden) sent troops to Afghanistan, overthrew the Taliban regime and controlled the situation in the country for 20 years, having lost in clashes with the Taliban the lives of 2,500 soldiers and officers. The Americans have built roads, water pipes (access to clean water!), Hospitals, thousands of schools, institutes. In the country, infant mortality has decreased by 50%, and general literacy has increased to 43%. Overall, and overall, the US spent $ 2 trillion.
As a result, everything collapsed instantly under the blows of religious fanatics.
On the one hand, of course, the ethnically cohesive majority of the Pashtun Taliban played a crucial role. On the other hand, the weakness of the government and the supporting population.
Let's repeat: a civilizing defeat? Shouldn't you go into a strange monastery with your charter, including with the best intentions? Does the interference in any case turn out to be negative consequences for both parties?
In his address to the nation, US President Joseph Biden said:
“We must learn from our mistakes. When making a decision on Afghanistan, it is not just about Afghanistan. It's about ending the era of major military operations to rebuild other countries. "
However, there are also questions about the principle of "non-interference in internal affairs".
When the Taliban blew up 1,500-year-old, carved into the rocks (the highest - 55 meters), Buddha statues in the Damian Valley - was it an internal affair of the Taliban - or a crime against humanity, the destruction of the heritage of world culture?
When from 500 thousand to 1 million representatives of the Tutsi people were killed in Rwanda - was it an internal affair or a crime against humanity and humanity, genocide?
At the official international level, it is up to the UN to decide. But in neither case did the UN actively intervene.
Does this mean that the era of non-intervention declared by the American president automatically strengthens the role of the United Nations? And after the UN verdict, the entire world community will bear collective responsibility.
Perhaps the question will be raised about the expansion of the Security Council, about making decisions by a majority vote, that is, about the abolition of the "veto" right so that individual states do not use it for their narrowly political purposes?
These questions have not arisen today, and with each decade they become more relevant.