Posted 6 сентября 2022, 12:11
Published 6 сентября 2022, 12:11
Modified 24 декабря 2022, 22:37
Updated 24 декабря 2022, 22:37
Andrey Zlobin, candidate of technical sciences
From inveterate pessimists and skeptics, one sometimes hears that everything in the world has already been discovered, invented, and nothing new can be invented. This gives rise, especially among young people, to apathy, boredom and unwillingness to devote their lives to creative scientific and engineering activities, to explore unknown paths and distances.
It all depends on how lucky you are with teachers in this life. If your teachers were not indifferent people, with a rich imagination, experience, able to captivate with books and interesting things, there will be no time to be bored. Gradually, the realization will come that there is nothing more interesting than discovering the unknown and creating something completely new. This is how aviation was born at the dawn of the last century, and this is exactly how the great teachers who discovered the romance of the sky for the world were. Remarkable scientists, engineers, writers, poets, artists, musicians, actors called to the beautiful, awakened dreams of wings, winged machines, dreams of free high flight. Watching birds, people learned new laws of nature, physics, developed the science of aerodynamics, learned how to make various aircraft and their engines. The ability to look at the world with wide eyes is one of the most important qualities necessary for a creative person. I will try to argue that the development of aviation is just beginning, and many more white spots in the aerospace sector are waiting for their discoverers.
Do only birds fly? Going on hiking trips and sitting by the night fire, have you ever had to raise your eyes to the starry sky? There, where numerous meteors periodically leave their mark among the bright constellations. Bursting into the atmosphere at cosmic speeds, these messengers of the Universe heat up in flight to the stage of melting, and fall to the ground, having an ultra-low temperature. Surprisingly, it is a fact that many meteorites found immediately after the fall are quickly covered with an ice coating, they are so cold inside. This is explained by the fact that only a very thin surface layer of the meteor body has time to warm up in the atmosphere during a short flight time. Inside, meteorites retain the cosmic cold. Recently, American scientists experimentally confirmed my discovery, made on the tip of a pen more than thirty years ago, in 1988.
It turns out that at ultra-low temperatures, some meteorites exhibit the properties of superconductors. What's with aviation? And here's what. One of the founders of domestic aerospace technologies F.A. Zander, in his report on the problems of superaviation on March 25, 1930, noted:
“... crossing a magnetic flux at a very high speed, it is possible, by passing an electric current through a conductor and closing the current in space outside the ship, to obtain a force acting on the conductor in a certain direction. This can be used to change the path of the ship and to rise from the surface of a small planet, especially if at low temperatures it is possible to use the superconductivity of metals.
Superconducting meteorites, surrounded by hot plasma, fly at great speed, crossing the lines of the Earth's magnetic field, which means they can generate an electric current. So it turns out that the future of superaviation, predicted by F.A. Zander, is inextricably linked with meteor physics. By observing meteors and studying their flight, it is possible to subsequently develop aircraft that use a different kind of lift. Such an electromagnetic method of flight does not require wings or jet engines, and opens up truly fantastic prospects for humanity.
Indeed, the idea of flying superconductors is gradually finding concrete engineering embodiments. For example, on December 17, 1957, patent No. 830816 was issued in England for an aircraft, which, according to the idea of its authors, should be made in the form of a disk. A superconducting coil with current is laid along the outer edge of the disk, cooled by evaporating helium. According to the authors of the project, this scheme can be more efficient than airplanes with turbojet engines and can be used both for flights in the lower atmosphere and in the ionosphere. The simplest experiment demonstrating the "flying" prospects of superconductors is based on the so-called Meissner effect - the ability of a superconductor to push out an external magnetic field. It is enough to place a magnet over a cooled superconductor and you can see for yourself the ability of the first one to “float” freely in space.
There are known attempts to influence gravity using superconductivity technologies. Such studies are connected with the development of fundamental physics. Most have long been accustomed to the models of the universe proposed at the beginning of the 20th century. The etiquette in science is considered to be the denial of such a substance as ether, and some scientists still frown skeptically at the mere mention of it. But since such skepticism is already hindering the development of practical aviation, many prominent experts have changed their position regarding the theory of the ether.
Moreover, today published scientific results that can be considered breakthrough for future aviation applications. The book of famous Russian scientists V.L. Bychkov and F.S. Zaitsev, representatives of the prestigious scientific schools of the Faculty of Physics and the Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics of Moscow State University, has already gone through two editions. Lomonosov. The book is called "Mathematical modeling of electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena according to the methodology of continuum mechanics". Written at a high theoretical level and touching on the ether hypothesis, this book was marked by victory in 2018 in the competition of works of Moscow State University, which are of outstanding importance for the development of science and education. Of particular interest to superaviation of the future is the section "Reaction to Gravity", in which the topics of ether and superconductivity coexist. It is quite obvious that such a formulation of the question radically changes the entire philosophy of designing future generations of aerospace technology. Actually, superconductors are already beginning to find application in aircraft engine designs, providing them with higher parameters.
But what about the generally accepted ideas of Albert Einstein? These ideas need not be treated as permanently established dogma. After all, even the great physicist himself seriously considered the alternative. Not everyone knows that Einstein's little-known manuscript was recently published, in which he considers a stationary Universe, the matter of which does not expand, but multiplies. After Einstein, another major physicist, Fred Hoyle, developed a similar concept of a stationary universe. As theoretical studies of the most common hydrogen atom prove, such a formulation of the question is not without meaning. It can be shown strictly mathematically that the relative atomic mass of hydrogen is determined with the highest accuracy (at least up to the fifth decimal place!) by a specific computational algorithm. And this algorithm, based on the increase of the so-called Fibonacci numbers, testifies in favor of the evolution of the hydrogen atom by multiplying some subtle substance. In 2013, I published a corresponding article with the necessary mathematical calculations in the preprint archive of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the USA arXiv.org. I proposed to call the insignificantly small objects responsible for the multiplication of the substance Fibonacci elementary particles. Mathematics is a strict science. And if the mathematical theory confirms the multiplication in the Universe of the disappearing small particles and the subtle matter consisting of them, then there is nothing surprising in the fact that progressively thinking scientists return to the idea of the existence of the ether.
While working at the Central Institute of Aviation Motors CIAM from 1982 to 1997, I had to communicate with many interesting people. One of them was the oldest scientist of the institute Yu.G. Behley, who talked about his collaboration with F.A. Zander. Friedrich Arturovich went to work at CIAM from the propeller department of TsAGI in December 1930. It is here that F.A. Zander, in his words, "for the first time began to work fully on missiles." Excellent theoretical training, the talent of an engineer and researcher, and great diligence allowed him even then, in the early 30s, to come to grips with the realization of his cherished dream - the practical implementation of rocket flight. The beginning of this work was the experimental jet engines OR-1 and OR-2. SOUTH. Behley assisted F. A. Zander in testing the OR-1. At that time, Yuri Georgievich was 19 years old, and in his memoirs of a young laboratory assistant, Friedrich Zander gave the impression of a person “out of this world”, a typical “eccentric”, very passionate about something. Zander said: “Now we will find out the pressure in the nozzle!” He didn't say "in the snot", he didn't like it. Constantly typing something, he suddenly stood up and dreamily proclaimed: “To Mars! To Mars! It was very difficult to talk to him - he was almost always "absent".
It is quite natural that it was F.A. Zander was the first to formulate the ideas of superaviation and a new technological era. To do this, you need to be not just a highly educated person, an engineer, a scientist, but also a real romantic, a dreamer. Here, for example, is what Friedrich Arturovich told about his birthday: “On August 22, 1887, a huge stream of meteors fell, and on August 23 of the same year I was born. I don't know if my mother was worried about the fall of meteors, or if I was told about it, but this phenomenon, in any case, left a deep impression on my mind. Since childhood, I loved to stand at the window and look at the stars on dark winter evenings ... ". Passion for the ideas of flights accompanied Zander throughout his life. Probably, thanks to people like him, a playful decoding of the famous abbreviation GIRD, the jet propulsion study group, was born. The team in which F.A. Zander and the future General Designer S.P. Korolev was jokingly called "a group of engineers working for nothing." Incredible ability to work explains the fact that the discoverer of superaviation left us a rich creative heritage, including handwritten diaries.
It is a pity that some of these diaries were lost. The remaining seven thousand pages of manuscripts are stored in the Zander Archive in encrypted form. The fact is that Friedrich Arturovich kept his notes according to the long-forgotten Gabelsberger shorthand system. Deciphering the diaries is very difficult. Who knows, perhaps these diary entries contain many more important things for the future of superaviation. I repeat once again - the development of aviation is just beginning. And it cannot be ruled out that some of today's youth will create aircraft of a completely different type for the new technological era.