How is right? Authors of the petition want to return the former capital of Kazakhstan its former name

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How is right? Authors of the petition want to return the former capital of Kazakhstan its former name
How is right? Authors of the petition want to return the former capital of Kazakhstan its former name
10 February, 11:30CulturePhoto: Фото: Соцсети
Signatures are being collected in Kazakhstan under a petition to return the name "Alma-Ata" to the southern capital.

Sergey Baimukhametov

The petition organizers say:

“We believe that the city of two million people, which is rightfully the pearl of the country, should have a more sonorous name - a universal, universal name that plays with all colors. In this regard, the previous name of the metropolis "Alma-Ata" is a much better option!"

Yes, from 1921 to 1993, the capital of Kazakhstan in Russian was called Alma-Ata.

Beautiful, but more than strange. The toponym was translated into Russian as "Father of Apples". Everywhere. There is even a song by the legendary group "Aquarium" under this name:

The Father of apples

Staring into the blooming garden

Strange look.

Father of apples

Hear the movement of the roots in a dream,

Winters to spring.

The Russian military fortification in Semirechye (Dzhetysu), founded in 1854-55, became the city of Verny. In 1921, an order was issued by the Semirechensk Regional Revolutionary Committee, signed by the chairman Uraz Dzhandosov:

“The meeting of the proletarian organizations of the city of Verny and representatives of the poor villages of the county, on February 3, 1921, in the presence of the Presidium of the Turkish Central Executive Committee ... decided to rename the city of Verny to the city of Alma-Ata ... From now on, the city of Verny will be called in the language of workers the city of Alma-Ata, according to the name of the area, upon which it is based."

Dzhandosov was not a visiting commissar, but a local one. Moreover, at that time educated - a graduate of the Vernensky male gymnasium. Why did he decide that the area among the Kazakhs is called "Alma-Ata"? Maybe some "literate" from the outside prompted?

Speaking of locals. In 1929, at the Kazakhstan Local History Congress, the last mayor of the pre-revolutionary Verny, the initiator of archiving in Soviet Kazakhstan, the head of the Semirechye Geographical Society, Ivan Lvovich Bryzgalov, said:

“The capital of Kazakhstan now bears the name - Alma-Ata, historically incorrect and grammatically incorrect ... The new Russian city, officially spelled Verny, not only among the indigenous population, but also among Europeans, not only in Dzhetysu (Semirechye - S.B.), but also in Siberia and Turkestan was known as Almaty. Yes, that’s how it is now called by the entire non-immigrant population. ”

In vain. What the revolutionary committee prescribed - you can’t cut it down with an ax. Especially, exhortations of literate people.

And so it went: Alma-Ata, "Father of apples."

But, firstly, “ata” in Kazakh is not “father” at all, but “grandfather”. So, it turns out "Grandfather of apples"?

Secondly, the “father” in the Kazakh language is “ate”. Hence, from the common Turkic, the Russian "father", "patronymic" and "Fatherland".

Thirdly, the tract was originally called Alma-Tau - Apple Mountain. The city is located just at the foot of the majestic and beautiful mountain, overgrown with apple trees.

The word and concept "tau" - "mountain" is included in many toponyms of Kazakhstan and other Turkic-speaking countries. For example, Karatau - Black Mountains, Alatau - Motley Mountains, Temirtau - Iron Mountain. High yellow clay cliffs on the Volga were called Sary-tau, Yellow Mountains, hence the Russian toponym Saratov.

The southern capital city of Kazakhstan, as Ivan Lvovich Bryzgalov said in 1929, "is known as Almaty ... so it is now called by all non-visitors."

Perhaps "Almaty" is a slightly abbreviated, pattering pronunciation of Alma-tau. Or shortened to a toponym in one word - "Almaty", Yablonevoye. The tract Yablonevoye.

In 1993, the Constitution of Kazakhstan in the paragraph on the Coat of Arms, Flag, Anthem and the Capital defined: "The capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the city of Almaty."

So a new misunderstanding arose - in the Russian text of the Constitution. Let's take into account that parliamentary sessions and practically the entire state document flow were then conducted in Russian. That is, the Kazakh spelling and pronunciation were inserted into the Russian text. Yes, so in the Kazakh language, in the nominative case. And in Russian, in the nominative case, it should have been just Almaty.

In the Kazakh language, "Almaty" is absolutely naturally INCLINED in all cases. In the Russian administrative-bureaucratic everyday life, including in Russia, the UNBREAKABLE "Almaty" Difficult to pronounce has become firmly established. In the nominative case, it is difficult to pronounce "I came to Almaty." Although, according to all the laws of the Russian language, it SHOULD BE DECLINED by cases: Almata, in Almaty, from Almaty, etc.

Illiteracy is a constant scourge in any field. In the bureaucratic reality, however, it is terrible, dangerous, because it is imposed as a norm. Although in Russian usage, the indeclinable "Almaty" still raises questions for someone. Recently, the Russian weekly newspaper with the largest circulation redirected the question "How to write - Alma-Ata or Almaty?" at the Russian Language Institute. And I got the answer: it is possible, and so, but better than Almaty, as established by the state authorities of Kazakhstan.

This is what led to misunderstandings that were once admitted and received official status. In fact, and so, and so - wrong.

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