How to avoid heat stroke and overheating? And what if it happened?
The biggest danger during the hot season is heatstroke, or sunstroke. Its cause is most often the lack of moisture in the body. The vessels dilate, the blood begins to stagnate. In this case, a person may experience dizziness, headache, nausea and vomiting. Other symptoms of heat stroke are shortness of breath, blackouts, hallucinations, and even loss of consciousness.
“Heat stroke is most often a pressure surge. Either it has risen sharply, or it has fallen sharply. Therefore, in such a situation, it is necessary first of all to measure the pressure and assess the situation. Any common advice such as raising the legs above the head can end sadly if it is, say, a hypertensive crisis. So it’s better to call an ambulance”, - says Dmitry Epshtein, vice president of the regional organization of nurses in Moscow.
“Heat stroke in the middle of summer is a frequent reason to call a doctor”, - the ambulance doctor Sergey Senchukov told NI. – Often the reason for this is the use of alcohol in the heat. This is absolutely impossible to do, because alcohol increases heat transfer. Better kvass, mineral water. Often, with symptoms of heat stroke, before the ambulance arrives, a person is given validol, valocordin, nitroglycerin. It doesn't give anything. It is worth giving some drugs only if they are prescribed by a doctor, for example, with tachycardia. First of all, the victim must be transferred to a cool place, given plenty of drink, provided with air ventilation, freed from tight clothing so that he can breathe freely, wipe the body with cool water.
“Symptoms of heat stroke are headache, dry mouth, weakness, nausea, fainting, suffocation. A person who has become ill should first of all be taken into the shade and given a horizontal position to his body, put something cold on his head, unbutton his shirt, and ensure free breathing. It is absolutely impossible to give any pills before the doctor arrives, because the reasons for a sharp deterioration in well-being can be different”, - Nikolay Malyshev, doctor of medical sciences, told NI.
In hot weather, the body needs fluids more than ever: high air temperature and, as a result, increased sweating contribute to dehydration. Therefore, in hot weather it is necessary to observe a strict drinking regimen. The amount of liquid that needs to be consumed per day is calculated based on weight and ambient temperature.
Doctors believe that for a person weighing 50 to 55 kg, 1.5 liters per day is considered optimal at temperatures up to 23 degrees. At a temperature of 25 to 29 degrees - 2 liters. If the heat is more than 30 degrees - 2.5-3 liters. If you went to sunbathe or just stay in the sun for a long time, doctors recommend adding another liter to the daily norm.
But these recommendations cannot be called strict, everyone is individual. “Unless you have a specific disease that requires you to limit your fluid intake, drink as much as you want. When hot, it is optimal to drink liquid and take a shower every half hour. In general, the thermoregulation of the body works quite clearly. Many people notice that in the heat they don’t feel like eating at all. Everything is logical: the body spends less energy on processing light foods, vegetables and fruits than on digesting, for example, fatty foods. The body is arranged intelligently and tells the person what is needed”, - says Dmitry Epshtein, vice-president of the regional organization of nurses in Moscow.
“It is best to eat fruits, berries, lemon in the heat to replenish the water-salt balance. Sweet juices do not quench their thirst because of their high sugar content, not carbonated cool water is best”, - advises Nikolay Malyshev, doctor of medical sciences.
Summarizing, doctors give the following main recommendations, which, in their opinion, will help to avoid overheating, heat stroke and exacerbation of chronic heart and respiratory diseases:
Many see salvation in the heat in the air conditioner. But it's not all that simple. If you turn it on at full power, this can lead to unpleasant consequences. It turns out that in extreme heat it is also very easy to get sick, especially if you allow a sharp temperature drop.
“The difference between the temperature in the street and in the room should not be more than five to ten degrees. It is optimal to keep the temperature of the air conditioner at 20-22 degrees. Too much temperature fluctuation can lead to colds, sore throats and runny noses. In addition, it is important to regularly clean the air conditioner from dust and monitor the replacement of filters. If dust accumulates in it, it spreads throughout the apartment and can provoke a severe allergic reaction”, - Nikolay Malyshev, doctor of medical sciences, told NI.
Often people get skin burns from overheating in the sun. And here there are a lot of folk recipes for dealing with burns - from smearing with sour cream to lotions with urine. What to do if blisters appear on the skin?
“If you do get a sunburn, in no case do not use ice or ice water, do not apply scrubs, alcohol-containing products to the skin, do not pierce blisters and do not peel peeling skin - this can cause an infection. Do not smear the burns with sour cream: after drying, it forms a crust on the skin, which further irritates the damaged cells. If the pain is unbearable, take an anesthetic or anti-inflammatory drug and smear the skin with a special burn cream”, - comments a cardiologist, director of the Sechenov University hospital therapy clinic, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Yuri Belenkov.
“The best remedy is Panthenol. If blisters form on the skin, they should simply be washed with cool, but not very cold water”, - advises the ambulance doctor Sergey Senchukov.
But the main thing that doctors agree on is the advice to avoid direct sunlight during the period when they pose the greatest threat. “Siesta was not invented in vain. From 12 to 16 hours it is better not to be in the sun and in general on the street. If you are still there, you must choose the shady side, wear a hat and in no case flaunt with a naked torso. The best time for a beach tan is in the morning before 12 o'clock and in the evening after 16 o'clock”, - recommends Nikolay Malyshev, doctor of medical sciences.
Also in the ophthalmological center of the hospital. Botkin, doctors recommend wearing sunglasses in the heat. Ophthalmologists believe that this allows you to save the macular area, that is, the most fragile part of the eye. Ophthalmologists advise using tinted glasses in the heat not only on the beach, but also on the street.