In Moscow, the religiosity of its residents is gradually decreasing, according to a study by Yelena Kublitskaya from the Institute for Socio-Political Research ("The Russian welfare state and civil society in 2020: the implementation of national projects in a post-pandemic reality").
“The indicator of the level of religiosity according to comparative measurements in the capital over the past five years has decreased by more than 10% and returned to the indicator of twenty-five years ago: in 2014, 64% of respondents identified themselves as believers, in 2020 - 52%.
The non-religious population (group of non-believers + group of atheists) of the megalopolis has grown to 23% since 2010. The group of “non-believers” increased from 6% in 2010 to 13% in 2020. The group of "atheists" also grew during this period of time, from 4% to 10%.
However, a significant share of the group of believers (52%) can be called such conditionally. Thus, the largest group of believers is non-churched, who are characterized only by “vague”, indistinct indicators of religious consciousness, practically not participating in the ritual and ceremonial activities of traditional confessions. Their share in percentage terms among the religious population amounted to more than 50% by 2020.
(That is, in general, the proportion of believers should be reduced from 52% by half or even more (below 25%), and then their number will be approximately equal to non-believers)
At the level of self-identification, women more often refer to themselves as believers than men. There are more non-believers among men and in a highly income group of the population”.