The United States' nuclear weapons program was called the Manhattan Project. This project formally began on 13 August 1942. As part of the project, three atomic bombs were created: the plutonium "Thing" (Gadget) (exploded during the first nuclear test), the uranium "Little Boy" (dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945) and the plutonium "Fat Man" (dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945). Subsequently, the participants of the "Manhattan Project" created the Doomsday Clock - a metaphorical clock, midnight on which means a nuclear catastrophe. Today, the clock stopped at one hundred seconds to midnight, showing how fragile the world is and how easily we can lose it.
In the Soviet Union, the creation of atomic weapons began in 1953, as a result, the country received a hydrogen bomb. Academician Andrei Sakharov, who was directly involved in the development of lethal weapons, was subsequently sent to a seven-year exile in Gorky, and on December 23, 1986, together with his wife Yelena Bonner, returned to Moscow. Sakharov advocated nuclear disarmament until the end of his days. However, not everyone listened to the Soviet dissident, as well as the participants in the Manhattan Project.
The further the past became from us, the more countries wanted to become nuclear powers. And since today the situation in the world is restless, no one can rule out the worst possible scenario. Therefore, the question naturally arises: what to do if someone decides to press the red button?
A few years ago, researchers developed a new mathematical model that would allow a large number of people to survive a nuclear explosion. The developer of the model, physicist Michael Dillon of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, began development after the US government called for more research into nuclear shelters. Depending on the size of the city, between 10,000 and 100,000 lives could be saved if everyone followed the advice on how to behave,” Dylan writes in an article published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A.
With modern means of communication and warning, it is simply impossible not to find out about the impending danger. As a rule, the howl of a siren notifies about explosions. In this case, you must immediately turn on the TV or radio, connect to the Internet and carefully listen to the information about the gathering place for evacuation and further instructions. The main thing is not to panic.
When you hear the siren's lingering signal, it is important to understand that you have about 10 minutes to hide in a safe place. While in a metropolis, you can hide in the subway, but after an alarm, the entrance to the subway will close after 5 minutes. In addition, there are air-raid shelters under many high-rise buildings built during the Soviet era. Even if they were already remade for other purposes a long time ago, the walls remained the same, and they will save you from trouble. Being far from any bomb shelters and basements, you can hide in any building or behind a stone wall, cover your head with your hands and open your mouth. In no case should you look at the explosion, even if you are far from the epicenter. You can be blinded by the flash. Taking a selfie is the dumbest idea ever.
It is important to remember that the longer you stay outside, the more radiation you will receive. Therefore, first of all, you need to choose a shelter. If a person is in a building at the time of a nuclear strike, then it is best to take cover in a closed room - in a bathroom, an internal corridor, a pantry. Such a room from the outer walls should be separated by an additional partition and not have windows. In addition, it is advised to stock up on water and plug the door slots. Being in a room where there is a window, you need to lie on the floor with your feet against the outer wall, and cover your head with your hands.
Before you go to the nearest shelter, you need to take with you the essentials: a flashlight and extra batteries, a radio (battery operated), a first aid kit and necessary medicines, food and water. It's a good idea to have a can opener, cash and credit cards, and sturdy shoes on hand in case of an emergency.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), if you are near an explosion, the first thing to do is to close your eyes so as not to damage your eyesight. Then you need to lie on the ground, putting your hands under the body. In this position, it is necessary to remain motionless until two shock waves pass. You should also find something to cover your nose and mouth with, such as a scarf or handkerchief. Always cover your face.
Actions should be as follows:
When entering the surface from the shelter, it is necessary first of all to protect the respiratory organs with a gas mask or a construction mask; in extreme cases, a damp rag will do. Water must be drunk only bottled, which was packaged before the explosion. If there is none, you can drink from sources flowing towards the epicenter of the explosion, and not vice versa.
It is important to try to cover all parts of the body so that radioactive dust does not fall on them. Leaving the affected area, you need to hide from the rain. Every drop can be deadly.
Upon arrival in a safe area, you should immediately take a bath, change clothes and take all the medicines that the doctors will give out.
Survivors of the explosion urgently need to get away from its epicenter. In this case, the invisible danger is radiation. The faster a person leaves the affected area, the more chances he has to survive and stay healthy. If at some point the forces left, it is important to remember: you can not lie down on the ground.
The worst effects of the explosion are radioactive fallout, so the authorities may recommend the use of potassium iodide (KI), which blocks the absorption of radioactive radiation by the thyroid gland. Potassium iodide protects not only the thyroid gland, but not other parts of the body.
Let this information forever remain only a theory that will never come in handy in life!