The Chinese edition of Surging News devoted its material to Russian nuclear weapons. TJournal publishes a translation of this article, excerpts from which NI offers you to read:
On June 12, the newest strategic nuclear submarine of the Russian fleet, Prince Vladimir, was officially put into operation, which became the first of the fourth generation nuclear submarines of the Borey-A type 955A . The Russian Navy plans to build seven nuclear submarines of this class, Borey-A, in order to completely modernize its nuclear-based nuclear deterrence forces.
On June 2, TASS reported that the Russian president approved the principles of the Russian nuclear deterrence policy. This document clearly states that if the enemy’s conventional weapons attack the important infrastructure of Russia, this will lead to nuclear retaliation on her part.
Currently, Russia is equipped with 46 Satan missiles SS-18 and, in total, 460 nuclear warheads, which is half the number of nuclear warheads of the Russian Strategic Missile Forces. However, the SS-18 rocket was designed and manufactured by the Ukrainian Yangel Design Bureau. After the conflict between Russia and Ukraine in 2014, maintenance of the Satan rocket, which once scared the West, became a big problem. In addition, SS-18 missiles manufactured during the Cold War era have reached the end of their useful life. If Russia does not have suitable missiles to replace them, then its strategic missile forces run the risk of remaining "with bullets, but without weapons". Half of Russia's nuclear stockpile will be in danger of destruction, and the world's nuclear balance will shift toward the United States.
Although the "Satan" is made in Ukraine, Russia also has the opportunity to develop and produce heavy liquid-propelled intercontinental missiles. The development of a heavy intercontinental liquid-propellant rocket in Russia is the simplest and most effective solution to the Satan crisis.
China, the United States and Russia have developed and equipped solid-fuel intercontinental missiles. Such missiles are small in size, light in weight and easy to maintain, but solid-state rocket engines have a lower specific impulse. Lighter weight also means lower payload, which reduces the maximum number of missile-borne warheads. The potential of one warhead is small, which is the main reason why China and Russia continue to be armed with heavy liquid-fuel intercontinental missiles. Russia, moreover, uses the Satan missile to deliver half of its warheads, paying more attention to liquid missiles.
If Russia, faced with the inevitable decommissioning of Satan missiles, uses solid intercontinental missiles to deliver its warheads, it will have to produce at least hundreds of new missiles, which cannot be done on time at the facilities of the Votkinsk Machine-Building Plant, not to mention the huge costs for the Russian defense budget in this case. In this regard, in 2009, the Russian Ministry of Defense began planning to develop a new missile to replace the Satan. At that time it was reported that the rocket would have a take-off mass of at least 100 tons and could carry up to 10 nuclear warheads, at a distance of about 10,000 km. Thus, the Sarmat intercontinental missile appeared. Data on its characteristics changed. At first it was said that the take-off mass would be more than 100 tons, then several masses from 120 to 160 tons were announced several times. In 2016, the Sarmat rocket being designed became 20% lighter, but now the take-off weight has increased to 208 tons, which is almost equal to the weight of the 210-ton Satan rocket.
In 2018, Putin announced the launch of the Sarmat missile, and in 2019 the Strategic Missile Forces began preparing to replace the Satan missile. The Russian Army-2019 forum for the first time unveiled the latest Sarmat performance parameters: missile length - 35.5 meters, diameter - 3.5 meters, take-off weight - up to 208.1 tons, can carry from 10 to 15 nuclear warheads. The carrying capacity exceeds 10 tons, the rocket uses inertial navigation, satellite guidance and guidance on the position of the stars, and the maximum flight range can reach 18 thousand kilometers. If you look at the changes in the Sarmat rocket index over the past years, then, in a sense, it is the Russian version of the Satan rocket, using new technologies from around the country to improve and modernize it.
"Sarmat" should go into operation in 2021, can carry at least 10 nuclear warheads and completely replace the "Satan", while maintaining the combat effectiveness of the Strategic Missile Forces of Russia. The Sarmat missile has been upgraded using rocket technology in recent decades, for example, its first stage engine - RD-276 - is an improved version of the Satan rocket engine, but the second stage was recently developed. The engine and both stages of the rocket also reduce flight time, which helps reduce the likelihood of its detection and tracking by the U.S. space infrared system, increasing the chances of penetration into enemy territory. In addition, the TASS news agency reported that the Sarmat missile could fly to the United States from the south pole to bypass US missile defense systems in the Arctic. In fact, this is a revival of the Soviet system of partial orbital bombing (FOBS). FOBS capabilities will improve the flexibility of Russian nuclear strikes and the effectiveness of nuclear deterrence. Sarmat missiles, in addition to 10 nuclear warheads, can carry dozens of light or a small amount of heavy tricks to ensure that a real warhead can break through missile defense systems. In general, although the Sarmat missile is a liquid missile, it is, by its characteristics, a super-intercontinental missile and is an important pillar of the Russian ground-based nuclear deterrence and national security forces.
Sarmat missiles can break through the US missile defense system by relying on controlled warheads as well as light and heavy baits. The United States is developing multi-purpose missile defense (MOKV) technology to intercept missiles with multiple warheads. The Sarmat missile also has a unique supersonic warhead. The Russian project of an unmanned glider called “Project 4202” inherited the technologies accumulated during the development of the U-70 hypersonic machine in the 1980s. Since the United States withdrew from the 1972 ABM Treaty in 2001, project development has been resumed. The new hypersonic machine received the designation Yu-71.
Russia is currently using the SS-19 liquid intercontinental missile to test the Yu-71. A few attempts later, the flight tests of 2016 ended in complete success, testifying to the maturity of the technology of an intercontinental rocket with a glider on board. The height of the hypersonic glide in the atmosphere is very small, which reduces the distance of detection and tracking by enemy anti-ballistic radars. There is an uncertainty in the flight path, which significantly increases the difficulty of intercepting missile defense systems. The medium-range land and sea missile defense systems currently being developed by the United States can carry out large-scale medium-range intercepts of traditional intercontinental missiles, but hypersonic gliding warheads, such as the Yu-71, can deprive the U.S. of medium-range missile interception. The parameters of the Sarmat missile are much higher than those of the SS-19. It can also carry a hypersonic warhead Yu-71, including - several at a time. This creates an additional burden on the American missile defense system..."