The better will be the “own unique education system” announced by the Ministry of Education and Science and whether our specialists will be able to work abroad after its creation, NI found out.
So, the Bologna system is a passed stage. This is exactly how Minister of Education and Science Valery Falkov urged to treat her. According to him, "the future belongs to our own unique education system", which will be based on "national interests and maximum opportunities for students."
Russia joined the Bologna Process on September 19, 2003. This process assumes a two-stage system of higher education with a division into undergraduate and graduate programs. Bachelor's degree - 4 years, Master's degree - 2 years. Bachelor's programs began to appear in Russia in the late 90s, but this division has become widespread since 2011.
One of the first to respond to the statement of the Minister of Education and Science was the rector of Moscow State University Viktor Sadovnichy . In fairness, it should be noted that he has long spoken about the decline in the quality of education in Russia because of the Bologna system. According to him, until the 1990s, everything was based on a unique fundamental education system that "corresponded to the system." However, with the advent of "Western trends", the quality of education, according to the rector of Moscow State University, has significantly decreased. According to the Superjob study, the idea of abandoning the two-stage system of higher education (bachelor's and master's) was supported by 2 out of 3 Russians (66%). Only one in ten voted against. Respondents over 45 and Russians with a higher education (72% and 73%, respectively) spoke more often than others for the traditional system (a specialist with a 5-year course of study).
As NI managed to find out, a number of faculties of Moscow State University, which are associated with the teaching of the exact sciences, have actually abandoned the two-stage Bologna system and switched to a specialty. In particular, this affected the Faculty of Physics of Moscow State University.
“A two-stage system is not needed at the physics department, because a bachelor in physics will not receive a specialty. It is generally difficult to consider a bachelor as an expert in something. At the same time, it takes a lot of time to prepare a bachelor's degree, and then some of the courses are repeated again when moving to a master's program. All this turns into wasted time. As a result, we introduced a specialty. And before that there was profanity. After a master's degree, preparation is much better, but not everyone goes to it, that is, the state spent money senselessly. In general, the two-stage system is not suitable for all faculties. It is definitely not suitable for the Faculty of Physics, Faculty of Chemistry and Mechanics and Mathematics, ” Associate Professor of the Faculty of Physics of Moscow State University, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Andrei Larichev told NI.
We asked what future physicists should do without bachelor's or master's degree documents abroad, because only such diplomas are recognized there.
“This is a lie,” commented Andrei Larichev, associate professor of the physics department . - I graduated from the USSR under the specialty, and my diploma of a graduate of Moscow State University was recognized abroad. There was a case with my colleague, when he was employed abroad, he received a conclusion that his diploma of a graduate of Moscow State University can be equated with a document on the completion of a master's degree. Our old diplomas from Moscow State University were recognized abroad and such specialists were valued. We at Moscow State University have been fighting for a long time to replace the bachelor's and master's programs with a specialist's degree, and we have tacitly introduced this at several faculties. But now the rector of Moscow State University will allow you to study both under the bachelor's and specialist's programs at the same time. For example, the diploma will indicate: a bachelor of law, a specialist in criminal law, ” Associate Professor of the Faculty of Physics at Moscow State University Andrey Larichev told NI.
Among the university students surveyed, 44% supported the proposal to abandon the two-stage system of education at the university, 29% voted against. But among the parents of 11-graders who plan to enter universities, the overwhelming majority - 93% - spoke in favor of abandoning the bachelor's and master's programs in favor of a five-year study at universities.
At the same time, the question arises: why did our country switch to the two-stage Bologna system, if it is so imperfect?
“In the early 90s and in the 2000s, there was an idea that we are preparing people, first of all, for work in international organizations. The school curriculum was focused on this, where they drastically reduced mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history - everything that is necessary to prepare a future engineer, scientist, teacher and increased the number of hours of foreign languages. This was also the focus of teachers in the educational process. Everyone said: “How cool, our guys will travel around the world!”. But it didn't work out.
Under the Bologna system, the quality of education has declined significantly. For example, a bachelor has 40% fewer special classes, as he studies for 4 years instead of 5 years, and he is taught anything but special knowledge. And when now 2/3 of citizens are in favor of a specialist and against the Bologna system, this is the voice of the people. We have prepared a special bill in the State Duma, it will be introduced in the near future. We need specialists who will develop their country, and not increase the human potential there at our expense, ”said Oleg Smolin, First Deputy Chairman of the Committee on Education and Science of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, Doctor of Philosophy, Academician of the Russian Academy of Education.
And yet: will our youth be able to present their diplomas abroad after leaving the Bologna system? After all, now 49 countries are participating in the Bologna process. Will we be on the sidelines of the educational process?
Deputy Chairman of the Committee on Science and Education of the State Duma Alexander Mazhuga , in an interview with the Podyem telegram channel, admitted that Russian diplomas would no longer be recognized in the West. But he promised that the authorities would solve this problem: “I think we will come up with an approach so that bachelors come to us, and we can recognize their diplomas, and our students can go abroad to get an education, and there is also the possibility of recognition there. But it's a big, hard job." According to the deputy, "in the current conditions, it is necessary to greatly increase and improve the training of personnel, who will certainly be in demand by industry and business." “In a number of specialties, yes, the two-tier system does not meet the demand of the industry. New approaches need to be made in these specialties. First of all, these are engineering and technical specialties,” said Alexander Mazhuga, deputy chairman of the Committee on Science and Education of the State Duma.
The decision of the Ministry of Education and Science to abandon the Bologna system also raised other questions. For example, how will curricula change (after all, you can’t change them in a week), what to do with textbooks (you can’t rewrite them in a week)? How, after all, to be students who are currently studying in a two-level system? How will the programs change, and will it suit all students and teachers?
“I graduated from a university under the USSR, and I am completely satisfied with my education, the transition to the Bologna system seemed redundant to me. But changing the education system every 20 years is absurd", - said "NI" candidate of political sciences, political scientist Alexander Kynev. – Frequent changes will inevitably lead to loss of quality. Two reforms in such a short period of time look, pardon me, absurd. Indeed, according to the Bologna system, a huge number of people received diplomas. How will they exist now? The reasoning is not clear. In general, education and healthcare are two rather sensitive areas, changes in them can mean the destruction of the way of life for millions of people. In my opinion, this is an adventurous story with unpredictable social consequences. Everyone inside this system is horrified”, - says political scientist Alexander Kynev.
We tried to find out details about the change in curricula and programs in connection with the abandonment of the Bologna system at the Ministry of Education and Science, but the press service told us that the department had declared a moratorium on all comments and explanations until the end of this week. The Ministry of Education and Science refused to name the reasons.