"Novye Izvestia" found out the history of mobilizations, starting with Prussia and the Russian Empire.
- Mobilization in translation from English means “set in motion”. This means that the military machine, which in peacetime was in sleep mode, was put into action, military historian Boris Yulin noted in an interview with NI. In his opinion, mobilization is carried out only if the state is ready to enter the war within a short period of time. Or its military leadership expects a war is about to be unleashed against it. Mobilization is precisely the military solution to the problem.
- There is a generally accepted concept, including in Russia, of the word mobilization - "bringing the armed forces of the state, as well as its economy, into a state of war," the expert emphasized.
- Boris Vitalyevich, specify what is the difference between mobilization and conscription?
- Indeed, we often confuse these two concepts. A call is when young people are recruited for military service. The call is valid in peacetime. And mobilization is when, in addition to conscripts, trained reserves are put under arms. This is mobilization. Mobilization is always a necessary measure. It only applies in times of war.
- Who was the first to use the term "mobilization"?
- The term itself was invented by the Prussians, in Europe it has been used since the middle of the 19th century. Mobilization is directly related to the concept of "universal conscription", that is, when the state has its own small army in peacetime, and it must be deployed at the expense of trained reserves that have completed military service into a massive combat-ready army in time of war.
In the Russian Empire, mobilization was first carried out before the Crimean War, when the Russians switched from a recruiting army to an all-class military service. Then the authorities had a real opportunity to introduce mobilization in connection with the abolition of serfdom. Instead of recruits, they began to recruit soldiers on conscription for military service. Having served their due, the former soldiers were already in the reserve.
- When was the first mobilization announced in Russia?
- The first mobilization in the Russian Empire took place during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877. In the future, it was announced more than once - during the Russo-Japanese War, the First World War and, of course, the Great Patriotic War.
What age men were subject to mobilization?
- In pre-revolutionary Russia, age played a certain role during mobilization. Those who served military service remained in the reserve. Those who did not undergo army training were listed as conscripts of the second stage or the so-called "militia warriors". Those men who came out of military age were also considered militia warriors. They were called after the military reserves were completely exhausted.
Meanwhile, mobilization has no age ceiling. During the Great Paraguayan War, when all human resources were exhausted, men from 11 to 60 years old were put under arms.
Another example. When, at the end of the war, Hitler's Germany ran out of human resources capable of fighting, the Germans began to call on the service of both youngsters and the elderly.
- What obligations does the state assume after the announcement of mobilization?
- Mobilization is always a necessary measure. It, I repeat, is used only in time of war. The state is obliged to provide soldiers and officers with uniforms, to feed and arm them. It is obliged to provide the troops with a command and control system. In other words, the state is obliged to make sure that mobilization does not consist only in the call of personnel. And then after all, in the Russian Empire in 1915, after a big retreat due to colossal losses, several waves of mobilization had to be carried out. As a result, it turned out that almost one and a half million Russian soldiers were not armed at all. In all seriousness, the issue of arming the infantry with axes and halberds was considered.
- Are women subject to mobilization?
- In some countries, mobilization also applies to women, for example in Israel. This is determined by the mobilization plan of the state. In the same Israel, everyone is obliged to serve. With the exception of the Jewish Orthodox, they are officially exempt from military service.
We have women soldiers subject to mobilization.
- Should the Duma adopt special laws on mobilization?
- And they already exist. In Russia, mobilization is regulated by the federal laws "On Defense" and "On Mobilization Training and Mobilization in the Russian Federation", as well as the federal constitutional law "On Martial Law".
Only the president of Russia has the right to introduce the corresponding provision and announce the mobilization. At the same time, mobilization begins first, and only after approval by the Federation Council can the president introduce martial law in the country, military historian Boris Yulin told NI.