Vladimir Cherny, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
Today, many questions have accumulated to the theories of the Big Bang and the expanding Universe. Nobel laureates D. Gross and A. Rice compare the situation with a crisis. D. Gross believes that contradictions can be avoided by constructing physics of the Planck length scale (size of the order of 10 to the power (-33) cm), which is fundamentally different from quantum field theory. We measure everything by length, time and mass. But these units are invented by man. And the fundamental constants of dimension in nature are by no means meters, kilograms and seconds (see, for example: D. Gross. Superstring theory).
The American physicist D. Bohm, who was favored by A. Einstein, believed that there is a certain hidden order in nature, which determines and allows to describe all processes numerically. All properties of particles should be determined by the properties of the physical vacuum and all observable quantities for elementary particles are derived from the hidden parameters of the physical vacuum, hidden from the observer of the order. The challenge is to identify these hidden parameters. (See, for example: D. Bohm. Unfolding meaning. Part 1. Hidden order: a new approach to reality).
That is, it is necessary to build a model of the physical vacuum - the “nothing” model! One must understand that this "nothing" is also a material environment.
The Russian physicist, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Yevgeny Vasilievich Chensky, built such a theory. He believes that the process of the evolution of the Universe can be considered without binding oneself to the laws of spatial geometry of the theory of the Big Bang and the expansion of the Universe, but using the dynamic properties of fundamental physical parameters. For example, through the frequency fluctuations of the energy of a proton and an electron with a period of billions of years. His model of the physical vacuum is presented in the form of an infinite rigid three-dimensional crystal lattice with a period of Planck's length. He solved the problem of coupled harmonic oscillations of such a three-dimensional infinite structure, and received a system of twelve equations with which one can describe the observed phenomena. In fact, he was the first to solve the problem of a three-dimensional soliton. The model describes electromagnetic waves and the spectrum of elementary particles. The lattice sites contain oscillators responsible for the proton and electronic branches of the oscillations. In the crystal lattice, there are two branches of polarization oscillations, electric and magnetic. In the zeroth approximation, these modes turn out to be independent of each other. The inclusion of electromagnetic interaction leads to the fact that the oscillations of these modes are associated with each other. This leads to the emergence of a system of twelve equations describing the coupled oscillations of these modes. The system of equations allows one to describe the behavior of all observed particles.
E. Chensky was also able to identify the hidden order of the physical vacuum. He showed that such a parameter is the fine structure constant, which characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. It was introduced in 1916 by A. Sommerfeld as a measure of relativistic corrections when describing atomic spectral lines in the framework of N. Bohr's model of the atom. It characterizes the fine structure of spectral lines. And now its physical meaning is that it is equal to the susceptibility of a rigid crystal lattice of a physical vacuum with a period of Planck's length. And through it, you can calculate the physical constants. And the constant of interaction of the oscillator of the crystal vacuum with the polarization field is proportional to the charge of the Dirac monopole. Then the energies of the proton and the electron are characterized in the same way, and their charges turn out to be the same in absolute value.
The energies of a proton and an electron change with time, but this is not associated with a relativistic change in their masses. If we represent the change in the energies of the particles as a sinusoid, then now the energy of the proton decreases, and the energy of the electron increases. When the curves intersect, a state of supersymmetry sets in, the frequencies of both modes become equal, the energies of the electron and proton become the same and turn out to be indistinguishable.
By reducing the energy of the proton, one can numerically estimate how much the radiation energy of Jupiter and Saturn exceeds the energy they absorb. This phenomenon is associated with processes in the atmosphere of gas giants, which consists of hydrogen and helium. The theoretical calculation gives a tabular agreement with the measured values.
The theory makes it possible to clarify under what conditions the mass of inertia does not coincide with the gravitational mass. The inertia of the particles turns out to be not isotropic, it is different along the motion and perpendicular to it. Energy is a scalar, and inertia is a tensor that depends on the direction of motion, that is, the inertia is higher along the motion than in the perpendicular direction. In a circular motion, inertial and gravitational masses coincide. For an elliptical trajectory, they are different. This explains the perihelion of Mercury. The growth of inertia can lead to the fact that the second cosmic velocity is less than the first, and it is less than the speed of light. And this can lead to the fact that a photon and relativistic particles can fly out of objects such as a black hole at a sufficiently high speed and energy.
From the exact equation of motion for all particles in a gravitational field, it turns out that the declared curvature of space cannot be considered proven. And the observed redshift is explained by a change in the energy of particles when moving in a gravitational field. Light can come out of a black hole. In this case, the photon loses energy for the work function of the potential well. The photon energy and its frequency decrease, the observer fixes this as a shift towards the red line of the radiation spectrum.
There is no need to introduce antigravity to explain the behavior of the Hubble constant. The Hubble constant will also grow, due to an increase in the distance between frequencies, the distance between energy levels in the hydrogen atom. If the natural frequencies of the electronic branch and the proton branch of oscillations change in time, moving towards each other, when the electron frequency increases, and the proton frequency decreases, then the growth of the derivative with time of the electronic branch is a change in the Hubble constant. And there is no need to introduce dark energy to explain the growth of the Hubble constant.
A new interpretation of the existence of the redshift is proposed. Hubble defined it as a Doppler shift associated with a shift towards an increase in the wavelength in the spectrum of the radiation it observes during the recession of galaxies. But we see radiation emitted billions of years ago. If the Universe is infinite, then there can be no scattering of galaxies. Then we can assume that we are dealing with a change in the properties of the crystal lattice of the physical vacuum in time. That is, in the past, the radiation spectrum was shifted to the red side due to the fact that the Bohr energy of the electron was less. And this means that today we are observing not a red, but a blue shift in time, since the electron becomes heavier at every moment of time.
The decrease in the energy of the proton is associated with the discharge of its energy in the form of neutrinos. And ultra-low frequency neutrinos can make up existing dark matter that participates in gravitational processes. But ultra-low frequency neutrinos practically do not interact with matter, except for manifesting themselves in the effects of gravity. This means that dark matter cannot be detected in any other way than its manifestation in gravitational processes. Moreover, at present, the amount of dark matter increases as the energy of the proton decreases.
The practical implications of the theory are interesting. A decrease in the energy of a proton with acceleration today can lead to the activation of geophysical processes in space: the activation of geysers on its satellite Saturn Enceladus, and on Earth - to warming and intensification of volcanic activity, earthquakes, unexpected phenomena in the ocean and atmosphere, etc.
The name "Cyclic Universe of Yevgeny Chensky" implies an endless process of periodic changes in the energy of a proton and an electron. And the answer to the question: "Was there a Big Bang?" - is no longer so relevant.
Ye.V. Chensky. Articles and chapter in the book:
Ye. V. Chensky. The Oscillating Universe Theory (To the Unified Field Theory). International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics ), 2013, 3, 438-463 .
Yevgeny Chensky. New Consideration of Problems of Gravitational Optics and Dark Matter Based on Crystal Model of Vacuum. JEAA, 2010, 2, 8, 495-512.
Yevgeny Chensky . Consideration of the Problems of Gravitational Optics and Dark Matter Based on the Crystal Model of the Vacuum. in Book: N ew Developments Magnetohydrodynamics, Plasma and Space Research. Eds: Stephen Talton and Patrick F. Theba. Series: Earth Science in the 21st century. Nova Science Pub. Jan. 20, 2012.